THE HOLY SCRIPTURES
and some parts of
JOHN PYE SMITH, D.D., F.G.S.
Divinity Tutor in the
Protestant Dissenting College at Homerton.
D. Appleton & Co.
350 + 9 pages,
This electronic edition prepared by Dr. David C. Bossard
from original documents in the library holdings of Dartmouth College.
Copyright © 2005 by Dr. David C. Bossard. All
A vagure idea has obtained circulation, that certain geological
doctrines are at variance with the Holy Scriptures. This notion works
with pernicious effect. The semblance
of discrepancy is indeed undeniable; but I profess my conviction that
it is nothing but a semblance, and, like many other difficulties on all
important subjects which have tried the intellect of man, it vanishes
before careful and sincere examination. [p. 20]
The study of revealed religion, cannot but be in perfect
with all true science. The works and the word of God are streams from
the same source. [p. 33]
titlepage i i
prescript iv iv
Preface v v
Advertisement vii vii
Contents ix-xii ix
LECTURE I. Page 13. 013
PSALM cxi. 2. The works of the Lord are great, sought out of all them
that have pleasure therein.
Object, design, and importance of geological science. Requisites and
method of the study. Harmony of all science with the announcements of
Revelation. Truth. Evidence. The world. The SUPREME BEING. Authority of
p20 Many excellent persons, devout and practical Christians, knowing
"the word of our God shall stand for ever," feel no desire to become
acquainted with the question; and sit down with a persuasion, that
geological theories are visionary plausibilities, each having its day
of fashion, then being exploded in favor of some other vagary, which in
its turn gives way, and all falling under the description of
"philosophy and vain deceit, according to the tradition of men, the
rudiments of the world; -- perverse disputings of men of corrupt minds,
destitute of the truth, -- reprobate concerning the faith." (Col. ii.
8, 1 Tim. vi. 5, 2 Tim. iii. 8.)
That such a state of opinion is injurious to the cause of Christianity,
can admit of no doubt. It is a fearful thing to array science and
religion against each other...Men who have well studied the questions
at issue, and who know the
evidence of those geological facts to which such strong exception is
taken, cannot by any possibility be brought to renounce their
p38 [quoting Cambridge professor Adam Sedgwick] "A philosopher may
smile at the fulminations of the Vatican against those who, with
Copernicus, maintained the motion of the earth: but he ought to sigh, when he finds that the heart
of man is no better than it was of old, and that his arrogance and
folly are still the same.-- There are still found some who dare to
affirm that the pursuits of natural science are hostile to religion. An
assertion more false in itself, or more dishonourable to the cause of
true religion, has not been conceived in the mind of man....there is a
class of men, who ... have tortured the book of life out of its proper
meaning, and wantonly contrived to bring about a collision between
natural phenomena and the word of God.--They have committed the folly and the SIN, of dogmatizing
on matters which they have not personally examined, and, at the utmost,
know only at second hand; and of pretending to teach mankind on points
where they themselves are uninstructed. Authors such as these
ought to have first considered, that ... to a divine or a man of
letters, ignorance of the laws of nature and of material phenomena is
then only disgraceful, when he quits his own ground and pretends to
teach philosophy... It would indeed be a vain and idle task, to engage
in controversy with this school of false philosophy...Their position is
impregnable, while they remain within the fences of their ignorance."
LECTURE II. Page 41. 041
DEUTERONOMV xxxiii. 13, 15, 16. Blessed of the Lord be his land; for
the precious things of heaven, for the dew, and for the deep that
coucheth beneath,--and for the chief things of the ancient mountains,
and for the precious things of the lasting hills, and for the precious
things of the earth and the fulness thereof.
Change in the material universe, constant, but according to law.
Description of facts in relation to the crust of the earth. Internal
condition. Pyrogenous rocks. Stratified formations. Remains of
creatures which once had life.
p60 Dr. William Smith, the Father of
LECTURE III. Page. 70. 070
ROMANS xi. 36. Of HIM, and through HIM, and to HIM, are all things: to
whom be glory for ever.
Recital of opinions which are by many assumed to be asserted or implied
in the Scriptures, but which are contrary to geological doctrines. I.
The recent creation of the world. II. A previous universal chaos over
the earth. III. The creation of the heavenly bodies after that of the
earth. IV. The derivation of all vegetables and animals from one centre
of creation. V. That the inferior animals were not subject to death
till the fall of man.
p70 It is a prevailing opinion that the dependent universe, in all its
extent, was brought into existence by the almighty power of its
Creator, within the period of the
six days laid down in the first portion of the Book of Genesis:
chap. i. throughout, and ii. 1-3... The same conclusion is also drawn
from the language of the fourth commandment: "In six days, the Lord
made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is." Exod. xx.11.
To this position the discoveries of geological science are directly
p72 The general evidence for an antiquity of the earth, so great as to
set at nought our attempts at estimation, may be compendiously
understood by any one who will take moderate pains in studying the
appearances of stratification and the characters of organic remains.
LECTURE IV. Page 89. 089
GENESIS vi. 17. And behold I, even I, do bring a flood of waters upon
the earth, to destroy all flesh wherein is the breath of life from
under heaven: and every thing that is in the earth shall die.
Continuation of apparent discrepancies between Geological doctrines and
the testimony of Scripture, as generally understood. VI. Concerning the
Deluge. The reason for that judicial infliction, in the righteous
government of God. The testimony of history and tradition. Common
ascription of geological phenomena to the Deluge — erroneous.
LECTURE V. Page 107. 107
2 PETER II. 5. God spared not the old world,-bringing the flood upon
the world of the ungodly.
Continuation. More accurate and discriminating inquiry. Investigation
of the masses of rolled stony fragments which have been attributed to
the diluvial action. Those masses found to be of different character
and age. Effect of the investigation upon the convictions of the most
eminent geologists. Evidence from phenomena in Auvergne and Languedoc.
The quantity of water requisite for a deluge geographically universal.
The effect of such an addition to the bulk of the earth. The reception
of animals in the ark. Other difficulties.
PART I. Page
1 THESSALONIANS v. 21. Prove all things: hold fast that which is good.
Examination of various methods which have been proposed for the removal
of the difficulties and alleged contradictions, between Geology and the
Scriptures. I. Denial of any difficulty, by shutting the eyes to the
evidence of geological facts, and representing the inquiry as impious.
PART II. Page
1I. Sacrificing the Mosaic records, as unintelligible, or as being the
language of mythic poetry. III. Regarding the Mosaic six days as
designed to represent indefinite periods. IV. Attributing
stratification and other geological phenomena to the interval between
the Adamic creation and the Deluge, and the action of the diluvial
PART III. Page
Examination continued of the diluvial theory.
p197 "Geologists have carefully examined some ten miles' thickness of
solid fossiliferous strata to the number of hundreds, which they are
able to do by means of their slanting position, where the edges crop
up. These strata are not homogeneous; but consist of successive layers
differing widely in their character and contents. They are divided into
groups; they are not jumbled confusedly-fresh water productions with
salt, land animals with fishes, present with extinct genera or species;
but they lie as methodically as the shelves of specimens in a cabinet,
being to all appearance successive sedimentary depositions gradually
accumulated through a period of very long duration; the footsteps of
animals on the once soft moist sand (now hard rock), and the ripple
marks of water, being in many cases still visible, and the most
delicate and brittle species of shells being unfractured. At the bottom
are numerous strata of slate, shell, limestone, and sandstone,
containing vegetable and animal sea-water remains now wholly unknown.
Over these come sand and clay, interlaid with vast forests of coal, and
other land and fresh water productions. Then come limestone, and
sandstone, and clay; all containing organic remains quite distinct from
those of the former groups. Then come the upper fossiliferous rocks; in
which, for the first time, appear land animals; but even these quite
distinct from those that now inhabit the 'world. These ten miles of
strata upon strata bear marks of successive changes in the crust of the
earth, both by dislocation and gradual accretion, every particle of
clay or sand, for example, being so much pulverized rock; and the vast
masses of fossiliferous stone, often composed almost entirely of
shells, having every appearance of being the sediment at the bottom of
oceans for very lengthened periods; how long no man can calculate; but
this we know, not through eternal ages, for the very first announcement
of Holy Writ is, that God created all things; they were therefore not
self-derived or eternal.
But to pretend that there is any proof in Holy Writ, that God created
them about six thousand years ago, and that to doubt this is
infidelity, is to foist the received interpretation in the place of the
inspired word, as well as to deal very harshly by our Christian
neighbour who thinks otherwise. The geologist only asks a hearing; but
he is not heard; he is taunted, declaimed against, and silenced; whilst
the infidel stands by and admires the proceedings of the Protestant
inquisition, as often as a new Galileo demonstrates a truth which
accords not with some received interpretation. 'Let God be true, and
every man a liar;' but we are not to lie for God, or, what comes nearly
to the same, to refuse to open our eyes to truth, because we are
apprehensive, as the Roman Catholics are in regard to
transubstantiation, that our senses and our faith will contradict each
other. We may feel quite easy on that score; for the more we know of
God's works, the more clearly shall we see their accordance with his
word; though not, it may be, with some popular comments on it."
[Christian Observer, March 1839; p. 147]
PART I. Page
PSALM XII. 6. The words of the Lord are pure words; as silver tried in
a furnace of earth, purified seven times.
The certain and infallible truth of all that is taught in the Holy
Scriptures, when taken in its own genuine sense. Our duty to elicit
that sense. Induction and examination of the forms of language used in
Scripture to convey to man a knowledge of the Nature and Perfections of
GOD. The gracious condescension and benefit of this method, for the
religious instruction of mankind. This character of the scriptural
style displayed in the descriptions of natural objects. General rule of
interpretation hence derived. Superiority of the Christian dispensation.
PART II. Page
227. 227 228
Application of the principle established, to the interpretation of the
narrative concerning the Creation. The independent position of the
first sentence. The subsequent description refers to a limited region
of the earth. The series of operations. The human creation. Death,
before the fall of man.-The same principle applied to the fact of the
Deluge, which is shown to have been universal as to the extent of the
human population, but not geographically universal.-Concluding
vindication of the principle, and its applications, as irrefutable, and
absolutely necessary for maintaining the honour of the word of God.
p247 To those who have studied the phraseology of Scripture, there is
no rule of interpretation more certain than this, that universal terms are often used to
signify only a very large
amount in number or quantity.
p258 I have now reached the point at which, from the beginning of these
lectures, I have been aiming. I speak my own conviction, and I trust I
have brought forwards sufficient evidence to support that conviction,
that the alleged discrepance between the Holy Scriptures and the
discoveries of scientific investigation, is not in reality, but in
semblance only: in particular, that the Scriptures, fairly interpreted,
are not adverse to a belief in an immeasurably high antiquity of the
earth; in the reference of the six days' work to a part only of the
earth's surface; in the position of several centres of creation,
distinct from each other, on the surface of the globe; in the reign of
death over the inferior animals, from the earliest existence of
organized earthly beings; and in a limited extent of the deluge which
swept away the remnant of a self-destroying race, saving one family,
which "found grace in the eyes of the Lord."
I have not attempted to do this by affirming that the Scriptures teach
the sciences; or that their language can be forced, by any grammatical
or critical ingenuity, into a literal accordance with scientific
truths: but by adducing abundant evidence to show that the AUTHOR of
revelation spoke to mankind in such language as they were accustomed to
use, such as they could most readily understand, and such as must ever
remain the most affecting and impressive to the human heart.
Let it also be observed, that the principle of interpretation here
brought forwards is entirely independent of facts in Natural History,
or doctrines of Geology, or any other branch of Natural Science. If
those facts be denied and those doctrines disapproved, still this mode
of understanding the figurative language of Scripture will not be
affected; it stands upon its own evidence, and cannot, I conceive, be
It follows then, as a universal truth, that the Bible, faithfully
interpreted, erects no bar against the most free and extensive
investigation, the most comprehensive and searching induction. Let but
the investigation be sufficient, and the induction honest. Let
observation take its farthest flight; let experiment penetrate into all
the recesses of nature ; let the veil of ages be lifted up from all
that has been hitherto unknown, if such a course were
possible;-religion need not fear, Christianity is secure, and true
science will always pay homage to the Divine Creator and Sovereign, "of
whom and through whom and to whom are all things; and unto whom be
glory for ever."
LECTURE VIII. Page. 260. 260
ECCLESIASTES xii. 13. Let us hear the conclusion of the whole matter;
Fear God, and keep his commandments: for this is the whole of man.
Religion the perfection of our nature. The duty of scientific studies,
especially in a course of education. Exhortations to personal efforts
for improvement. Peculiar claims of Geology. The proper accompaniments
of scientific pursuits. Advantage to the comforts of life. Moral uses.
Responsibility to the just and holy GOD. Interest and urgency of these
considerations. The rational claims and attractions of religion.
p269 But, why do you not let these matters alone Why do you bring them
before the Christian public, distressing the minds of pious persons,
and incurring the danger of shaking the faith of your weaker brethren?
I am bound to acknowledge that my own breast is no stranger to the
feelings involved in these queries. Scarcely can I turn out of my heart
emotions approaching to envy, at the tranquil state of many of my
fellow-Christians. Happily ignorant, exempt from perplexities and
conflicts, at least on such subjects as this, they spend their
blameless lives in the exercises of piety, usefulness to mankind, and
all the sweet enjoyments of religion ; they go down to the grave in
peace, and the angel of death leads their purified spirits to the
perfection of heaven.-Would we harass them on their pilgrimage? -Far,
far from it !
Alas, the choice is riot left with us! These subjects are not allowed
to lie in concealment. They are bruited abroad, If Christians can be
quiet, infidels will not be so. " The arrow flieth by day, and the
pestilence walketh in darkness." Not only in books of philosophy, but
in the periodical journals arid common literature of the day, in this
country and in others, in Europe arid in America, by various phrase,
covertly and openly, coarsely and politely, it is proclaimed that
Cuvier has supplanted Moses, that Geology has exploded Genesis. There
is a class of persons, who understand the scientific side of the
difficulty enough to make out of it an excuse for open infidelity, or
secretly cherished skepticism; and thus they are able to pacify their
consciences in a contemptuous neglect of the evidence and authority of
Do we owe no regard to those persons? Have we no sympathy for them ; no
consideration for the educational and other unhappy causes of their
doubts? Are riot their souls as precious as our own? Is not their
state, before God and for eternity, as important as ours? Can we
prevail upon them to unlearn their knowledge, to stifle the convictions
of their judgment, or to suppress the avowal of those convictions? -And
if we could; if they were to promise silence and to keep the promise;
would religion be served thereby? Examples have not been wanting of
complimentary verbiage, with affected solemnity, offered to the
Christian religion ; while the fraternity of concealed unbelievers can
look significantly at each other, and mutually build up their
self-flattery and pride; as if they were men immeasurably superior to
the vulgar, but who, to sooth prejudice and flatter public opinion, are
willing to uphold a style of conventional hypocrisy.
But, can we not throw ourselves into the arms of our brethren in the
faith, who, as we have seen, summarily dispose of the whole matter? -We
cannot. First; our own convictions stand in the way. The facts cannot
be set aside : they are too numerous, too various and independent, and
too weighty in their character as grounds of reasoning. Secondly; if we
could so put off our reasonable faculties, the great cause would not be
relieved. It would be far more deeply injured. The body of scientific
men, in every country, would only be confirmed in their hostility, and
the more completely discharged from keeping terms with us: while we
should be the men that laid Christianity under the feet of its
Hence arises a motive of the greatest force to quicken our endeavours
to diffuse everywhere just principles for understanding the figurative
language of Scripture. We cannot but be affected by the prevalence of
ignorance and misconception on this point ; and the consequent
influence of those misconceptions upon the formation of religious
sentiments and their practical results. The eloquent profusion of
striking Scripture-language, in sermons and treatises and poems, yet
without the accompaniment of just caution and correct interpretation,
has made many enthusiasts and many infidels ; and not a few have rushed
from the one extreme to the other. ... Christianity is represented as
an irrational dream; and the best hopes of man are thrown to the winds.
But, how often does a melancholy reaction take place, and the empire of
superstition succeed to that of scorn! Sorrow and desolation, age and
death, present themselves; and the miserable victim, "ignorant of God's
righteousness," and never having cast the anchor of his soul "within
the vail," is overwhelmed with terrors, and flees into the arms of some
foolish and delusive scheme, for relief from the scourge of a terrified
conscience :-a false relief, to be followed by the bitterest
aggravations of disappointment, and the death of hope!
To prevent such ruin, let us do all in our power to inculcate just
views of the true meaning of Scripture-imagery, the unalterable
perfections of God, the majesty of his holiness, the riches of his
grace, and the exceeding greatness of his power, through faith in
Christ, to liberate our souls from sin and wretchedness, and raise them
to immortal purity, activity and joy. Tnis is "the glorious gospel of
the Blessed God;-the truth according to godliness, in hope of eternal
life, which God who cannot deceive has promised before the world began."
Our religion, -- blessed be God! -- is not a religion of contrivance
and expediency. We want only TRUTH: and we cannot barter it for ease,
custom, or fashion.
Is it not then our duty, as honest men and Christians, to make
ourselves somewhat more than superficially acquainted with the evidence
in this case ; amid to take some pains in diffusing correct knowledge
A, referred to at pages 9 and 242.
On the question respecting Death; and on Geological Study in general
[p295] Might not the deposition of all the strata, their superposition,
the imbedding in them of vegetable and animal remains, and their
elevation so as to form our present continents and islands, all have
taken place in the 1656 years from the fall to the deluge, completed by
the powerful action of the diluvial waters?
This is the question of questions in relation to Geology. To discuss it
fully would require a volume: yet, long as this paper has become, I
must offer a few words.
There are two classes of men, each of which gives its reply.
The first class consists of those who have heard the word Geology, but
have been told (often by truly excellent men) that it is a dangerous
study, that it impugns the truth of the Scripture records, and that it
seeks to betray the unwary into infidelity. Of this class, some have
read a little about geological subjects, have heard say a little more,
and have eked out the rest by their own conjecture and imagination: and
they answer this question in the
The second class of persons comprises those who have spent thirty,
forty, even fifty years in laborious investigation; many of them,
having set out with the opinion of the former class; who have
personally explored all the most important districts in the British
isles, in France, in the Alpine countries, in Germany, and in Eastern
and Northern Europe; also, in Asia, North and South America, and many
parts of Africa and Australasia; who have endured herculean toils in
the field of personal labour; expending large sums of money in their
travels for this very object; who have come to geological
investigations well prepared by mathematical and chemical science; who
have pursued those investigations with untiring perseverance, and with
the severest jealousy against precipitate conclusions: and what answer
do THEY give With one mouth they say, NO; IT IS IMPOSSIBLE.
There are thirty, or rather more, well defined beds, layers, or strata,
of different mineral masses, lying upon each other so as to form the
surface of the globe on which we dwell. These combine themselves, by
natural characters, into three or four grand groups. Compare them to a
set of books, in 30 or 40 volumes, piled up on their flat sides. No
where, indeed, can the whole set of the earth's strata be displayed,
lying each upon the other, for reasons which will presently appear;
and, if it were so at any spot, all the power and art of men could
never penetrate through more than one, two, or three of the layers.
They are placed one over the other, in a sure and known order of succession; that
is, though in no locality are
all to be found, or (which is
saying the same thing conversely) in every
locality some are wanting,
the order of position is never violated. Let the letters of the
alphabet represent the strata, thus; the TERTIARY, a, b, c, d, e; the
SECONDARY, i. e. all from the chalk to the old red sandstone,
inclusive, f to z; the PRIMARY, aa, bb, &c. to jj: then observe
that any member or several members of the series may be absent, for
example, d or f, or 1 or p; but b is never above a, nor m above k, nor
s above q. When this fact is rightly conceived of, let it be further
observed, that the strata do not lie over each other in continuous
concentric spheroids like the coats of an onion; but may rather be
compared to a vast number of wafers, of irregular forms, laid on a
globe, and patched upon each other in different sets as to thickness,
and variously underpassing, out-cropping, and overlapping. Now, let the
mind imagine mighty forces from below, acting upon certain points and
along certain lines: then the wafer-patches will be raised to all
angles, bent, broken, their edges often turned up, so that the edges of
lower strata stand in some places over the higher ones which had been
thus shat tered. Further, let the mind conceive, of a mass of melted
matter, suppose pitch, having lain for some time quietly underneath the
lowest of the wafer-patches; then boiling up, bursting forth, and in
many places raising the wafers, piercing them, passing through them,
and finally hardening in fantastic shapes, and towering over the
upheaved and fractured outside. This little play of imagination will
present a pretty fair idea of the real
stratification of the earth's surface, the eruption of the non-stratified (granitic and
similar) rocks which have boiled up, elevating linear ridges
(mountain-ranges,) when they could not pierce through, but actually
piercing through where their force could overcome the resistance, and,
when cooled, remaining the magnificent crags and summits of the
loftiest mountains. It must also be understood, as a matter of the
clearest sensible demonstration, that these processes have occurred
several times, at various and distant intervals; producing among the
strata many varieties of direction, inclination, contortion, cleavage,
conformity, and nonconformity in reference to each other. If all the
strata could be placed, or, for illustration sake we may say replaced,
upon each other, to what thickness or depth would they amount? It is
commonly said five miles: Dr. Buckland, who is so eminently qualified
to make an estimate, gives his authority to the supposition of ten
miles. With respect to the actual surface of the earth, the greatest
height from the lowest valley-bottom to the top of the highest
mountain, may be taken at five miles. This height, compared to the
diameter of the earth, may be fairly represented by the thickness of a
fine thread laid upon the surface of a twelve-inch globe.
All these things being considered, the inquirer may be able to conceive
the appearance of the accessible end, or denuded cross-cut, of a
stratum or several strata. The observer sees that the whole has been
deposited from water, either as a mere precipitate from a mixture, or
as separated from chemical solution. Hence, the variety of rocks,
siliceous, clayey, limestone, many, and all these in various compounds.
The eye also perceives, in many cases, the lower portion of a stratum
to contain pebbles, the water-worn fragments of the older rocks to
which they can be traced; higher up, the coarser sandstone; and towards
thetop, thefiner sediment. Moreover, the separations of the distinct
strata are often presented to view; the bounding surfaces of the
Now we want a measure for the
rate of deposition. A perfect rule for this is beyond the present reach
of science; but there is an ample sufficiency of ascertained facts, to prove that the whole series of deposits has occupied
untold ages. This letter has grown to so alarming a length, that
I can only hint at the phenomena which furnish the grounds for this
approximative estimate. They are observations upon the rates of
deposit, in all kinds and in all circumstances, as it is continually
going on in ponds, lakes, river-beds, estuaries, deltas, flat shores,
siliceous and limestone springs of water, and conclusions analogical
but most powerfully supported, concerning the deposits in the depths of
This may give some idea of the processes of observation and reasoning
by which we are brought to the conclusion which I have mentioned; that
the whole series of stratifications, which lie upon the non-stratified masses of rock, MUST
have taken a period of time immeasureable
by mortals, but which is but a point in comparison with the
ETERNITY of the CREATOR may be proper also to observe that it is only
in the newest and latest kinds of formation that any remains of man and
his contemporary animals are to be found.
[p298] We may now ask, What is the just interpretation of Rom.
v.12, "By one man sin entered into the world, and DEATH BY SIN?" We
reply that it refers to the access and dominion of death over man,
involving the presupposition that, had not our first parents sinned,
they would, on the expiration of their probationary state, have
undergone a physical change
different from dying, which would have translated them into a
higher condition of happy existence, This glorious prospect they
forfeited, and, as the just penalty of their transgression, sunk down
into the condition of the inferior animals, in becoming the prey of
temporal or corporal death: but, in relation to their higher
capacities, they plunged themselves into the gulf of death in senses
infinitely more awful. Thus to Adam and all his natural descendants,
"the sting [that which
constitutes it a real evil] of death is SIN :" but to the irrational
creation this does not apply. They are incapable of moral obedience or
disobedience towards God, (though they have resemblances of both with
respect to man, who is to them in the place of God, Gen. i. 26,) and
therefore death is not a sting to them, in a spiritual sense, or in any
sense inconsistent with the equity, goodness, and wisdom of the divine
B, referring to pages 60 and 61.
On the number of species in the earlier Fossiliferous Rocks.Death of
Dr. William Smith 302 302
C, referred to at page 138.
On the Longevity of Trees 304 304
C C, referring to pages 126-131.
Christian Piety in the Puy de Dome 306 306
D, referred to at page 188.
On Dr. George Young's Scriptural Geology 309 309
E, referred to at pages 74 and 197.
On the Evidence of a very High Antiquity of the Earth 316 316
F, referred to at page 226.
Sentiments of John George Rosenmüller, Bishop Bird Sumner, and Mr.
Conybeare, on the initial portion of the book of Genesis 344 344
F F, referred to at page 231.
Extracts from Wiseman and Hitchcock, on the reference of the Mosaic
Records to Geological Truths 347 347
G, referred to at page 235.
On the Duty of these Investigations; and in Vindication of Dr. Buckand
G G, referring to page 253.
On Mount Ararat 354 354
H, referred to at page 285.
The Geological Society vindicated from misrepresentation 355 355
INDEX 359-364 359