Section I.-- General structure of the
earth, and the Principles of Classification. 15 015 016
 Geology is a history, not merely in the sense of description, but
as a record of events. It narrates the condition of things from the
period previous to the existence of organic life, through successive
dynasties of more perfect races, to the dominion of man. Physical
catastrophes, and the birth and extinction of races, are indellibly
written upon the stony leaves of natures' volume.
Stratified Rocks 18 018
Concretionary Structures 27 027 028
Unstratified Rocks 30 030
Formations 38 038
Classification of Rocks. 040
 Classification founded upon Palaeontology; that is, organic
1. Palaeozoic Period: Silurian,
Devonian, Carboniferous, Permian.
features: 1. Absence of mammals and birds; 2. Many Cephalopods
(like Nautilis) not found afterwards; 3. Many Brachiopods; Many
Trilobite crustaceans, of which we find no trace afterwards; 4. Many
singular anumals called Crinoids; 4. Polyps and Corals of peculiar
2. Secondary Period: Triassic Jurassic, Cretaceous (Palaeosaurian
features: 1. Small marsupial quadrupeds; 2. Enormous reptiles;
3. Many shells: Ammonites & Belemnites; 4. Echinoderms (like Sea
Stars); 5. Polyps
3. Tertiary Period: Tertiary Epoch (Mammiferous period)
features: 1. Many mammals; 2. Reptiles & fish of near-modern
form; 3. Disappearance of Ammonites & Belemnites.
4. Quaternary and Modern Period: Diluvian and Modern Epoch.
features: Appearance of Man.
Section II.-- The Chemistry and Mineralogy of Geology 47 047
 The largest part of the known mass of the globe is these binary
compounds (by mass): Silica (45%), Alumina (10%), Lime (14%), Magnesia,
Potassa (7%), Soda (6%), Oxide of Iron (3%), Oxide of Manganese (under
1%), Water, and Carbonic Acid.
Section III.-- Lithological characters of the Rocks 59 059
I. Stratified Rocks 60 060
II. Palaeozoic system (Cambrian or Huronian, Silurian, Devonian or Old
Red Sandstone, Carboniferous, Permian) 62 062
III. Mesozoic System (1. Trias or New Red Sandstone; 2. Jurassic: Lias,
Oolite; 3. Cretaceous or Chalk series) 67 067
IV. Cainozoic System (1. Tertiary: Eocene, Miocene, Pliocene; 2.
Alluvium: Drift Period, Beach Period, Terrace Period, Historic Period)
V. Unstratified or Igneous Rocks (1. Granitic, 2. Trappean, 3.
Volcanic) 76 076
Section IV.-- Operation of Atmospheric and Aqueous Agencies in
Producing Geological Changes 94 094
 The basis of nearly all correct reasoning in geology, is the
analogy between the phenomena of nature in all periods of the world's
history: in other words, similar effects are supposed to be the result
of similar causes at all times. This principle is founded on a belief
in the constancy of nature; or that natural operations are the result
of only one general system, which is regulated by invariable laws.
Waves and Tides 116 Oceanic currents
117 Denudation 119 Chemical Deposits 121
Surface geology 127
Iceberg Theory 154 Elevations and
earthquake Theory 154 glacier Theory 154 elevation and submergence 156
The Historic Period
The Agency of Man in Producing geological changes
Coral Reefs 164 164
Section V.-- Operation of Igneous Agencies in Producing Geological
changes 170 170
Depression of the Beds of Oceans 198
Vertical Movements of Continents 199
Folding of Strata 201
Configuration of the Earth's Surface 203 203
Elevation of Mountains and Systems of
The Earliest State of the Earth 208 208
Geology of Other Worlds 209 209
Section VI. -- Metamorphism of Rocks 211 211
1. azoic schists may be interstratified
with fossiliferous strata. 225
2. The Process of metamorphism is still going on. 225
3. The earliest rocks may have all disappearred 226
4. A plausible theory of the origin of azoic stratified rocks. 226
5. Metamorphism may have obliterated successive systems of life 227
6. Metamorphism throws light upon the origin of the granitic rocks 228
7. Metamorphism throws light upon the formation of dykes and veins 229
8. Most rocks have undergone several entire changes since their
original production. 230
9. The entire crust of the globe has undergone metamorphism, and is not
now in the condition in which it was created. 231
Section I.-- Preliminary definitions and Principles 233 233
1. Character of Fossils 233
2. Nature and Process of Petrifaction 235
3. Means of determining the Nature of Organic Remains 235
Classification of Living Plants and Animals 236
Flowering Plants (Phanerogamia): Plants which produce real flowers with
stamens, pistils and seeds.
Exogens or dicotyledons
Plants increase by rings on the outside
Seed opening into two or more parts called cotyledons.
Most common trees and herbs.
Endogens or monocotyledons
Plants increase by threads or fiber
bundles from within.
Seed has only one cotyledon.
Leaves have parallel veins.
grasses, rushes, bulbous plants, palms.
Flowerless Plants (Cryptogamia): Plants
without flowers and propagating by spores instead of seeds.
Acrogens: Ferns, horsetails, club
Anophytes: Mosses, liverworts
Thallophytes: algae, lichens, fungi or mushrooms.
Fauna: Four major Subkingdoms:
Vertebrata: Mammals, Birds, Reptiles,
Articulata: Worms, Crustacea, Insects (Agassiz divisions)
Mollusca: Acephala, Gasteropods, Cephalopods (Agassiz)
Radiata: Polypi, Acalephae, Echinoderms (Agassiz)
 It is a moderate estimate to say, that two-thirds of the surface
of our existing continents are composed of fossiliferous rocks; and
these often several thousand feet thick.
Ichnology = the science of tracks, lithichnozoa
 The first scientific account of fossil footmarks, was in
1828...In 1836, the first description was given of the tracks in that
most prolific of all localities, the valley of Connecticut river...so
many other localities have been discovered in Europe and America, that
scarcely any fossiliferous formation is now without its footmarks.
Section II.-- Palaeontological Characters of the Rocks 246 246
 Organic remains are not thrown together confusedly in the
rocks, but each of the great rock formations has its peculiar fossils,
which are not found in the formations above or below.
1. Cambrian or Huronian System.
2. Lower Silurian System 248 248
Flowerless plants and invertebrate
animals only. Crustaceans highest class of animals.
Fucoids (a sea weed); Polypi - coral reef formations secreted by
Anthozoa; Graptolites; brachiopods (bivalves with unequal valve);
Conchifers, Gasteropods (Bellerophon); Cephalopods; Echinodermata (star
fishes, crinoids); Crustacea (Trilobites),
 Crustaceans form the highest order of articulated nimals. By far
the most remarkable group of them in the earlier or palaeozoic rocks
are the Trilobites.
3. Upper silurian Period 259 259
Mostly marine plants (algae or
sea-weeds). A few vertebral animals appear.
Polyps (chain corals). Conchifers well represented, Cephalopods,
Crinoids abundant, Echinoderms, star fish, trilobites,. fishes at the
end of period.,
4. Devonian Period 265 265
Great development of fishes in this
periiod. Reptiles begin to appear.
sea weeds, some land plants: monocots & conifers. Polyps (corals -
Favosites, Astrea rugosa), Brachiopods (Spirifer), Conchifers,
fish divisions based on the form of the scales (Agassiz): 1. Placoids
(enameled plates); 2. Ganoids (sim. to teeth enamel); 3. Ctenoids
(toothed or comb-like scales); 4. Cycloids (circular plates without
 We cannot but remark here, how entirely opposed are these facts
to a prevalent hypothesis that the different sorts of animals in the
rocks, as we ascend, have been slowly changed from one into the other
by a natural process.
5. Carboniferous period 273 273
Abundant remains of terrestrial plants
in the coal measures. Previously it would seem that not much dry
land existed, certainly not in a condition for producing vegetation.
Flowering plants begin to appear. First large animals. Insects
(scorpions & spiders).
mostly flowerless plants, many grew to tree-like size: Acrogens: ferns
and lycopods. Many grew into large trees. Stigmaria = roots of
Sigillaria (ferns); lycopods (club mosses - lepidodendron),
equisetaceae (horse-tails, cattails, rushes - Calamites),
Asterophyllileae (Acrogens, with aster-like flowers). Dicots: coniferae
Animals: Foraminifera family; Bryozoa, Cephalopods (possess horny beaks
frequently found fossil), Nautilids, Ammonites, Crinoids, insects:
Arachnids (spiders, scorpions), Amphibious reptiles
(Labyrinthodontia, Ganocephala): similar to lizards, crocodiles, frogs,
>Acrogens, lycopods, stigmaria, lepidodendron, nautilis, syphuncle,
ammonites, heterocercal, homocercal
6. Permian Period 286 286
Plants and animals much like preceding
period. Reptiles numerous.
 This is the last of the Palaeozoic deposits. Common features:
1. Total absence of birds and mammals,
and rarety of vertebrates other than fish.
2. Among Molluscs, many cephalopods with simple divisions between
chambers, and by brachiopods.
3. Numerous trilobites, which vanish from later periods.
7. Triassic Period 288 288
Fossils less numerous than earlier and
later formations. Many reptiles. Labyrinthodonts - size of largest
crocodiles of persent day. Perhaps a toad or salamander. Marsupials
begin to appear toward end of period.
 All fishes below the Trias have one remarkable peculiarity -
heterocercal tails. The
vertebral column, or backbone, is prolonged far into the upper lobe of
the tail (like the sharks, sturgeons and dogfish). Most modern fish
have homocercal tails, with symmetrical tails.
8. Jurassic or Oolitic Period 293 293
Numerous fossils. Plants: No
angiosperms. Gymnosperms - Conifers, Cycadacea. Animals: Bivalves &
univalves abundant. Cephalopods highly developed. Belemnites (similar
to modern cuttlefish with ink sac), many ammonites of large size (up to
3 feet diameter), Myrapods (centipedes), winged insects
(Libellula), homocercal fishes,
Many reptiles: Ichthyosaurus, Plesiosaurus, Megalosaurus, Iguanodon,
Pterosaurians (flying reptile), Pterodactyls, Crocodiles.
Birds: Only tracks found. Numerous fossil footmarks found in
Mammals: Marsupials mostly small size. Some insect-eaters.
9. Cretaceous Period 320 320
Animals abundant. Many sponges.
Numerous microscopic formainifers form nearly half the chalk of
reptile: Mososaurus (herbivorous saurian, up to 25 ft. length).
 This is the end of the Secondary (Mesozoic) period. Common
1. Mammals rare, Marsupials only, of
2. Reptiles have immense development. Great size and abundance
3. Ammonites and belemnites belong exclusively to this peirod.
4. Echinoderms different from Palaeozoic Period. Great development
5. Polypi of unique groups characteristic of this period.
10. Tertiary Period 328 328
Animals of this period bear a strong
resemblance to existing plants and animals.
Plants: Angiosperms, Dicotyledons, and Monocots all abundant, including
fruits of plants.
Animals: Many protozoa (foraminifera), Nummulites,
bivalves, Amphibia (frogs), crocodiles, tortises, The first
birds appear. Many mammals. Carnivors (resembling the dog, fox,
hyaena), bear, seal, hippopotamus, hog, Mastodons: elephant-like
pachyderm - dinotherium (large tapir? length 18 ft.). Other mammals:
bat, hedgehog, shrew, mole, squirrel, rat, mouse, beaver, porcupine,
 Palaeontological Characteristics of the Tertiary:
1. Appearance and development of
2. Reptiles and fishes approach modern forms
3. Belemnites and Ammonites are completely absent.
11. Alluvial or Pleistocene Period 341 341
Aqueous deposits above the tertiary.
Glacial period with lower temperature.
Glyptodon (ancient armadillo), Megatherium, Mylodon (related to the
Section III.-- Laws by which Organic Remains have been Distributed
First Law.-- Species of
animals and plants have had a limited duration, rarely extending from
one formation into another.
It is of the species only that we
speak. The larger divisions, genera, orders and classes, do extend
through more or less of the formations; but in nearly all cases the
species become extinct at the close of the great periods. In respect to
the rocks below the tertiary, all [geologists] would agree that the law
has scarcely an exception.
Second Law.-- With the
exception above named, the fossil species have all perished.
Third Law.-- "The duration of
types and species as a general rule, is usually proportioned to rank
and intelligence. The most highly organized fossils have the smallest
By type we mean a set of characters by
which a genus, or family, or group is distinguished from all others.
Fourth Law.-- Each type of
organism has had but one term of uninterrupted existence, and sometimes
has extended only through part of a formation.
FifthLaw.-- Most of the great
Sub-Kingdoms of animals and plants, two thirds of the classes and
nearly half of the orders, and a few of the genera extend through all
The only exception in respect to
sub-kingdoms, is, that vertebrate animals are not found in the Lower
Silurian, and no deeper in the Upper silurian than the lower Ludlow
Rock; and flowering plants are not found lower than the Devonian. ...
[W]hile many of the classes and orders of the less perfect animals and
plants extend through all the formations, those of the higher
vertebrate type rarely reach through the whole series.
Sixth Law.-- Complexity and
perfection of organization as well as intelligence increase as we
ascend in the rocks.
This is true as a general fact; but in
particular tribes we find the reverse, viz., retrogradation from a
lower to higher condition. "All our most ancient fossil fishes," says
Professor Sedgwick, "belong to a high organic type; and the very oldest
species that are well determined, fall naturally into an order of
fishes which Owen and Miller place, not at the bottom, but at the top
of the whole class."
Seventh Law.-- Particular
classes, orders, and genera, as well as whole fauna and floras, have
had their period of expansion, culmination, diminution, and sometimes
The greatest expansion of particular
and peculiar Faunas and Floras has been employed to characterize
certain periods. Thus, the Palaeozoic Period has been called by the
botanists the Reign of Acrogens, because that tribe of plant then
predominated; the Mesozoic Period, the Reign of Gymnosperms; and the
Tertiary Period, embracing also the living plants, the Reign of
Angiosperms. In Respect to animals, the Palaeozoic Period has been
called the Reign of Fishes, the Mesozoic the Reign of Reptiles, and the
Tertiary the Reign of Mammals.
Eighth Law.-- The older the
rock the more unlike the existing fauna and flora are the fossil
animals and plants.
There are some exceptions to this
statement; for some forms are wonderfully persistent. Take, for
example, the ammoniote and nautilus; how much like the living
Ninth Law.-- The fossil faunas
and floras were, for the most part, of a tropical character, whatever
be the present climate where they are found.
As we go deeper into the rocks the
evidences of a former tropical, or even ultra tropical climate
multiply. The coal formation especially, ... is decidedly and
strikingly tropical everywhere.
Tenth Law.-- In the
distribution of species in the ancient faunas and floras, they had much
greater range than at present, while in the newer rocks their limits
differed but little from existing zoological and botanical provinces.
As we ascend, diversity increases when
we compare species together from widely separated localities.
Eleventh Law.-- The fossil
animals and plants had the same general structure as those now on the
earth, and their modes of living in both classes have been the same.
Comparative anatomy has not found it
necessary to frame any new law to embrace the relations of the extinct
to the living races.
Twelfth Law.-- "The phases of
development of all living animals correspond to the order of succession
of their extinct representatives in past geological times." (Agassiz)
This law represents the extinct adult
animal as corresponding more nearly with the embryonic than the adult
state of its living representative. in the ancient world, the
individual, though an adult, did not pass beyond the present embryo
state; but among living species the analogous animal passes on to a
higher state, or more complete development.
Thirteenth Law.-- Many of the
fossil animals had a combination of characters which among living
animals are found only in several different types or classes.
Agassiz very appropriately calls such
types Prophetic Types. For
they form the pattern of animals that were to appear afterward. ... The
Sauroid Fishes were true fishes, yet they had some strongly marked
reptilian characters. ... The Ichthyosaurus, as its name denotes, had a
close affinity to fishes. ... The Archegosaurus seems to have been "a
transitional type between the fish-like Bactrachia and the lizards and
crocodiles." ... The Pterodactyle, the most anomalous of ancient forms,
had the head and neck of a bird, the mouth of a reptile, the wings of a
bat, and the body and tail of a quadruped.
Fourteenth Law.-- The fossil
far exceed the living species in number.
[W]e find that six times more
zoophytes, nine times more molluscs, seven times more echinoderms, five
times more fishes, and ten times more reptiles have lived in Great
Britain during geological times than now exist there.
Fifteenth Law.-- Contemporaneous
species in any one locality, or in localities not distant from one
another, have appeared and disappeared together.
[I]n the rocks the group of species
that characterize a formation in almost all cases, show themselves
together at the bottom, and continue to live together till the close of
the period, when all disappear, and the new formation that follows
contains an entirely distinct group.
Sixteenth Law.-- Numerous and
successive systems of life, all different from one another, have
occupied the globe since it became habitable.
M. Alcide D'Orbigny [states] "A first
creation took place in the Silurian stage. After that was annihilated
by some geological cause, and after a considerable time, a second
creation took place in the Devonian stage, and successively twenty-seven times have distinct creations
repeopled all the earth with plants and animals, following each
time some geological disturbance, which had totally destroyed living
nature. Such is the certain but incomprehensible fact, which we are
bound to state, without trying to pierce the superhuman mystery that
Seventeenth Law.-- All the
diversities of organic life that have appeared on the globe were only
wise and necessary adaptations to its changing condition.
There is abundant evidence that changes
of climate, food, etc., have been great and numerous, and had there not
been a corresponding change in the nature and habits of animals and
plants, suffering and death must have been the consequence, as the
history of existing races proves.
Eighteenth Law.-- All the minor
systems of Life that have appeared, were but harmonious parts of one
all-comprehending system of organization, whose culmination we witness
in existing nature.
Diverse as the different floras and
faunas are in the different creations, they are all embraced in the
same system of classification, which groups together existing
organisms. They have all had similar organs and similar senses, have
been both carnivorous and herbivorous, have had the same relations to
light and heat as at present. Nowhere do we find different and
antagonistic systems, but all the wide diversities of structure and
habit coalesce into one harmonious whole.
Section IV.-- Inferences from Palaeontology in Connection with
Dynamical Geology 370 370
Inference 1.-- The present
continents of the globe (except, perhaps, some high mountains) have
been for long periods beneath the ocean, and have been subsequently
The amount of land above the ocean has varied in every period of the
earth's history, and it may be that large tracts, now submerged, once
wre important theatrres of terrestrial life.
Inference 2.-- The periods of
repose between catastrophes have been long.
The periods of disturbances must have
been very short, and theinterval of repose very long. The deposits
appear generally not to have been disturbed by any elevating force
while in a state of formation, as this would have changed the character
of the organic remains.
Inference 3.-- Catastrophes
have generally corresponded to changes in fossils
Inference 4.-- The whole period
since life began on the globe has been immensely long.
There must have been time enough for
water to make depositions more than ten miles in thickness, by
materials worn from previous rocks. ... Time enough to allow of the
growth and dissolution of animals and plants, often of microscopic
littleness, sufficient to constitute almost entire mountains by their
Inference 5.-- The period
before life appeared, was also immensely long.
We can trace indications of life into
the upper part of the Cambrian series. Below this horizon there are at
least 30,000 feet of stratified rocks, which must have required an
immense period for their formation.
Inference 6.-- The changes
which the earth has experience, and the different species of organic
beings that have appeared, were not the result of any power inherent in
the laws of nature, but of special Divine creating power.
In all the more than 30,000 species of
organic remains dug from the rocks, they are just as distinct from one
another as existing species, nor is there the slightest evidence of
some having been developed from others. The gradual introduction of
higher races is perfectly explained by the changing condition of the
earth... For the most part the new races were introduced by groups, as
the old ones died out in the same manner. New groups were introduced at
once...There is decisive evidence that in many cases during the
geological periods, animals, instead of ascending, descended on the
scale of organization from the more to the oless perfect.
Inference 7.-- The changes
which have occurred on the globe, both organic and inorganic, have
shown progress from the less to the more perfect.
Inference 8.-- The causes of
geological change have varied in intensity.
1. Illustrations of Natural religion from Geology. 377
CONNECTION BETWEEN GEOLOGY AND
NATURAL AND REVEALED RELIGION.
1. Geology shows us that the existing system
of things upon the globe had a beginning.
2. In all the conditions
of the globe from the earliest times, and in the structure of all the
organic beings that have successively peopled it, we find the same
marks of wise and benevelent adaptation.
3. Geology furnishes many
proofs of the Divine benevolence, so peculiar that they have sometimes
been quoted in proof of penal inflictions.
Most of these proofs
are derived from
agencies whose immediate effects are destructive and desolating.
4. Geology furnishes examples
what may be called prospective benevolence.
By this is meant a
provision for the happiness of animals, made long before their
5. Geology proves repeated special
divine interpositions, or miracles, in nature as well as special
A miracle is an event
that cannot be
explained by the laws of nature, but takes place in opposition to those
laws or by their agency intensified of diminished. A special
Providence is an event brought about apparently by second causes, but
those causes have been so arranged or modified by Divine agency out of
sight, that some specific object is accomplished, which would not
otherwise be effected. Geology abounds with examples of miracles and
special providences as thus defined.
6. Geology unites with all
sciences, and with experience, in showing the world to be in a fallen
condition, and that this condition was forseen and provided for, long
before man's existence.
7. Geology enlarges
conceptions of the plans of the Deity.
2. Bearings of Geology upon
Revealed Religion 382 382
 There are some erroneous notions widely prevalent on
One is, that geologists in their writings have arrayed the facts
their science against revelation. But the fact is, that the whole range
of geological literature scarcely furnishes an example of this sort
from any geologist of distinction. Such attacks, when made, have come
from mere sciolists in the science, or from men learned in other
departments, but no geologists.
Another is, that the bearings of geology upon religion are those
conflict rather than of illustratioin and corroboration. The fact is,
that most cases of supposed collision have turned out already to be
mere illustration: just as modern astronomy has shown us how to
understand certain passages of the Bible relating to the rising of the
sun and immobility of the earth, so has geology cast similar light upon
passages relating to the age of the world and the introduction of evil.
... Geology illustrates rather than opposes revelation.
 Three classes of men have
written concerning the connection
between geology and religion. The first
class are professed believers in revelation; but they do not
suppose the Mosaic record to be inspired and infallible as to history
of science; and hence they are not surprised to find discrepancies and
absurdities in what they regard as a myth or fable of the creation. The
second class are firm believers
in the Bible, but not in geology, which they consider so unreliable
that it ought not to be taken into account at all in the interpretation
of Scripture. The third class
believe in the divine inspiration and authority of every part of the
Bible; but they admit also the great princiiples of geology, and think
the two records not only reconcilable, but that they cast mutual light
upon each other, and that geology lends important aid to some of the
most important truths of revelation.
With this lass class our views coincide entirely, and we regard it
useless in this work to describe the theories by which the other
classes attempt to sustain their views, since the authority of the
Bible is destroyed by the first, and the settled principles of science
ignored by the second.
1. The Scriptures and geology
in not fixing the time of the creation of the world. No
matter how old geology makes the world; it is not older than the
"beginning" of scripture.
2. They do fix the time
man appeared. The Bible represents him as the last of the
animals created. ... His remains are found only in alluvium, the most
recent of the formations.
3. They agree in representing
creation as the work of God. This is very marked in the Bible,
and geolology presents numerous exigencies in which no law of nature,
no transmuting process will answer.
4. They agree in representing
instrumentalities as employed in the work of creation. God
commanded the earth to bring forth grass. So from geology we learn that
immense periods were consumed in preparing by natural operations for
the introduction of animals and plants.
5. They both represent creation
a progressive work, completed by successive exhibitions of Divine
power, with intervals of repose. How long the intervals were,
according to scriptures, will depend on the meaning which we attach to
the word day. Geology, too, teaches us most distinctly that the
various animals and plants wre not introduced at once, but at
intervals widely separated.
6. They agree in representing
continents as covererd an indefinite period by the ocean, and
subsequently elevated above it.
7. They agree in giving to the
earth a very early revolution on its
The very first day in
the Bible, while
yet the ocean covered the continents, is represented as having its
evening and morning, just like the rest. This was before the existence
of animals and plants.
8. The Mosaic account of
allows us to suppose an indefinite interval between the beginning and
the first day, which may correspond to the vast periods of geological
After the first
production of matter,
it is said to have been covered by watere and darkness, and to be
without form and void, that is, invisible, or waste, and unfinished.
Now how long it may have remained in such a condition, who can tell? It
may have been long enough to pass through the changes which geology
9. The six days of creation, in
the view of eminent writers, may be used figuratively for indefinite
found advocates as
early as the time of the Christian fathers, Augustine, Origin, etc. ...
They maintain that the word day is used thus figuratively in all
languages; that it is so used in Gen. 2-4; that the seventh day, or
God's Sabbath, has not yet terminated, and, therefore, the previous
days may have been equally long.
10. We may understand the days
as symbolically representing indefinite periods.
...just as days,
weeks, and times
are used in prophecy (which often has a symbolical form) for years.
11. The Biblical account of creation
may be regarded as a succession of pictures with existing nature on the
several rather striking coincidences between the two records as to the
order of events and the kinds of organisms introduced. Both show us, in
early times, the continents beneath the ocean, and subsequently lifted
out of it. Birds and sea animals are introduced on the fifth day, which
may reasonably correspond to oolitic times. Land reptiles and mammals,
or quadrupeds, come in not till the sixth day, which may well be
regarded as synchronous with the tertiary formation. Man on both
records is represented as the last animal created.
12. The sacred writer was not bound to
give, and could not give, always the true chronological order of
13. Geology and the Bible agree in
representing physical evil as in the
world before man.
The Bible intimates
that death and
other evils precded man. Of what use was the threatening of death if no
example of it existed among animals? Again, plants were created with
seeds in them, and animals were made male and female for the production
of a succession of races, and such a system implies a correspondent
system of death.
Zoology and geology throw doubt over the literal universality of the
deluge of Noah.
 It is high time for believers in revelation to cease fearing
injury to its claims or doctrines from geology, and to be thankful to
Providence for providing in this science as powerful an auxiliary of
religion, both natural and revealed.
Economical Geology is an account
of rocks with reference to their pecuniary value, or immediate
application to the wants of siciety.
The history of American Geology commences with the present
century. An important feature is the numerous geological surveys that
have been executed, or are still in progress, under the patronage and
direction of the different State authorities, as well as the United
States government. The leading object is to develop those mineral
resources of the country that are of economical value. But with a
commendable liberality, the legislatures have encouraged accurate
researches into the scientific geology, and sometimes also into the
botany and zoology of their several States.
NORTH AMERICAN GEOLOGY.
INDEX 420-430 420